In vitro fertilization better known as the IVF is the technique of taking out the eggs from the female ovaries and allowing fertilization by the sperm in a fluid base outside human body in laboratories. The Latin meaning of In vitro is in glass, hence originates the procedure of test tube baby. The natural IVF procedure includes collection of the eggs and fertilizing it with semen, the fertilized embryo after being fully ready under controlled conditions is transferred back to the uterus of the female to initiate normal child birth. The first successful case of test tube baby took place in1978.
The process of IVF is very complicated and involves certain amount of risks. The complications which the patient may face are ovarian hyperstimulation problem of painful swelling of ovaries, accumulation of fluids in the abdomen that results in nausea, gas, abdominal pains etc. The main problem of IVF is that of multiple birth which may occur during the transfer of embryo back to the patient’s body. If more than one embryo is transferred it generates risks of loss in pregnancy, premature delivery and if any embryo gets developed outside the uterus i.e. ectopic pregnancy the fetus has to be destroyed.